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A Pittsburgh Century (cont.)

Jan. 20 -- The torch is passed to a new generation as John Fitzgerald Kennedy is sworn in as President of the United States. In his speech, his tells his fellow Americans to "ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country".

March -- Kaufmann’s opens its first suburban store in Monroeville.

April 12 -- Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin is the first man to travel into space, circling the Earth in 90 minutes and fueling the space race between the United States and the Soviet Union. On May 5, Alan Shepard Jr. becomes the first U.S. man to travel in space.

September 17 -- The Civic Arena, with its retractable dome, opens to the public.

Dec. 2 -- Germany and Great Britain remove the drug thalidomide from the market, after doctors link the sedative to severe birth defects in more than 300 German babies whose mothers were given the drug to prevent morning sickness.

Feb. 20 -- John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the Earth.

June 14 -- Plans are announced for an $84 million rebuilding plan for the Golden Triangle.

Oct. 12 -- President Kennedy visits Pittsburgh and is welcomed by 300,000 people.

Oct. 22 -- Russia places nuclear missiles in Cuba but denies doing so. President Kennedy imposes a quarantine around the island. Negotiations are tense during what comes to be known as the Cuban missile crisis. Russia eventually gives in and removes the missiles.

Feb. 1 -- David Lawrence is sworn in as the chairman of the President’s Commission on Equal Opportunity in Housing.

June 28 -- U.S. Steel announces that cutbacks will result in 1,000 workers being laid off.

Aug. 28 -- The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C., as more than 200,000 Americans march in support of civil rights.

Nov. 22 -- During a visit to Dallas to shore up Democratic support, President Kennedy is assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald. In later years, Allegheny County Coroner Cyril Wecht makes a name for himself promoting the theory that Oswald could not have been the only assassin.


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The Beatles visit the 'Burgh.
        -- Morris Berman/Post-Gazette

Feb. 7 -- The Beatles "invade" the United States and are greeted by 10,000 screaming fans when they land at JFK Airport in New York. They make their first U.S. appearance on "The Ed Sullivan Show," and arrive in Pittsburgh in March.

Feb. 28 -- PAT becomes more than just a nickname for Patricia when the Port Authority Transit begins operating in Pittsburgh.

June 29 -- Police Detective Ralph Barnett is sworn in as the city’s first black police inspector.

July 1 -- President Lyndon Johnson signs into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The act mandates equal treatment in voting, education, employment and the use of public facilities, regardless of race.

January -- In his State of the Union address, President Lyndon Johnson describes programs for a "Great Society" that will eliminate poverty in America.

March 8 -- Congress authorizes the use of ground troops in Vietnam. Not long afterward, anti-war protests begin.

May 6 -- John W. Galbreath announces plans for a 60-story, $50-million building to house U.S. Steel’s headquarters and other tenants. It becomes the city’s tallest skyscraper.

Aug. 11 -- Race riots in the Watts section of Los Angeles result in 34 deaths and the destruction of more than 200 businesses.

Pittsburgh Pirate Roberto Clemente is named the National League’s Most Valuable Player.

June 13 -- "You have the right to remain silent ..." The phrase eventually becomes a staple of every TV cop show, but it starts with the "Miranda ruling" on this date by the U.S. Supreme Court, which mandates that criminal suspects be told their legal rights at the time of arrest.

Sept. 14 -- Plans to merge Mellon Institute and Carnegie Institute of Technology are announced, creating Carnegie Mellon University.

Nov. 21 -- David L. Lawrence dies, after suffering a heart attack two weeks earlier while attending a political rally at the Syria Mosque.

Jan. 13 - Wesley Posvar is named chancellor of the University of Pittsburgh.

Feb. 27 -- Elsie Hillman is elected county Republican chairwoman.

March 19 -- The Pittsburgh Symphony gets a new home when H.J. Heinz II and the Howard Heinz Endowment acquire Penn Theater and rename it Heinz Hall.

June 6 -- Pittsburgh is granted a National Hockey League franchise.

Jan. 12 -- The Pittsburgh Stadium Authority approves final plans and specifications for what becomes Three Rivers Stadium.

March 8 -- Former University of Pittsburgh chancellor Edward Litchfield, his wife, his mother and his two sons are killed when their plane crashes into Lake Michigan.

March 31 -- President Lyndon Johnson, under pressure because of the Vietnam War, announces he will not run for re-election.

April 4 -- Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated by James Earl Ray while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tenn. Race riots break out in more than 120 cities, including Pittsburgh. Unrest in the Hill District prompts Mayor Joseph Barr to impose a five-day curfew. On June 5, presidential candidate Robert Kennedy is assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan in a California hotel.

Nov. 5 -- In a very tight race, Richard Nixon defeats Hubert Humphrey and becomes the 37th President of the United States.

July 18 -- Sen. Edward Kennedy drives his car off a bridge on Chappaquiddick Island near Martha’s Vineyard, killing his passenger, Mary Jo Kopechne. Many feel his failure to seek immediate help for her dashed any chance he had of becoming president.

July 21 -- Even though he is not there to see it happen, John F. Kennedy’s dream of the U.S. landing a man on the moon before the end of the decade is fulfilled when Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins make history aboard Apollo 11. Armstrong sums up the event in 10 words -- "One small step for man; one giant leap for mankind."

Aug. 15 -- It was only three days of rock and roll and a whole lot of mud, but 500,000 people like it, and Woodstock becomes the musical event of its generation.

Nov. 4 -- Pete Flaherty, who bucked the Democratic machine to win the mayoral nomination, is elected. Cyril Wecht, a doctor and lawyer, is elected county coroner.

Jan. 1 -- Cigarette advertising is banned on television and radio.

Jan. 7 -- Among his first official actions, Mayor Pete Flaherty freezes city hiring to cut costs.

May 4 -- National Guardsmen open fire on students during an anti-war protest at Kent State University in Ohio. Four are killed, including Allison Krause, a 19-year-old honors student from Churchill.

July 16 -- The Pirates play their first game at the new Three Rivers Stadium, losing 3-2 to the Cincinnati Reds.

January -- Mayor Pete Flaherty and mayors in 14 other communities file suit to keep PAT from spending money to develop the Skybus, a rubber-tired, electric powered transit system that never came to fruition.

April 20 -- The Supreme Court upholds busing of school children to achieve racial balance.

June 30 -- The 26th amendment to the Constitution lowers the voting age from 21 to 18.

Sept. 10 -- Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts opens.

Oct. 17 -- Roberto Clemente leads the Pittsburgh Pirates to a World Series win over the Baltimore Orioles. Clemente bats .414 during the series and is voted Most Valuable Player.

Feb. 21 -- President Richard Nixon makes a historic trip to China, opening the door for improved relations between that nation and the U.S.

March 10 -- The Pittsburgh Zoological Society sues Mayor Pete Flaherty to keep him from taking control of the Pittsburgh Zoo.

May 10 -- Dr. Richard Cyert becomes the sixth president of Carnegie Mellon University.

June 17 -- Five men are arrested for breaking into Democratic National Headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington D.C.

Dec. 31 -- Roberto Clemente is killed in a plane crash off the coast of Puerto Rico while trying to fly emergency supplies to earthquake-stricken Nicaragua.

Feb. 13 -- City Councilman Richard Caliguiri announces he’ll seek the Democratic nomination for mayor. He is unsuccessful. In November, Pete Flaherty is reelected mayor, Cyril Wecht coroner and Eugene Coon sheriff.

April 30 -- Presidential aides H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman resign because of the growing Watergate scandal. White House counsel John Dean is fired.

Oct. 10 -- Vice President Spiro T. Agnew resigns from office amid an income tax evasion scandal. He pleads no contest. Gerald R. Ford replaces him.

Oct. 12 -- Mayor Pete Flaherty unveils an $82 million transit plan, which includes upgrading trolley lines to the southern suburbs.

To save lives and fuel, President Nixon signs a bill which will create a national speed limit of 55 mph.

Jan. 21 -- The Pennsylvania State Crime Commission charges that Allegheny County District Attorney Robert W. Duggan concealed campaign contributions and expenditures, pressured employees into donating and falsified election records. Less than a month later, Duggan is found dead in his Westmoreland County home. The coroner closes the investigation of his death without ruling on a cause.

Aug. 30 -- Point State Park, with its soon-to-be-famous geyser fountain, opens.

June 13 -- An explosion at the Gulf Building causes $1 million in damages. The Weather Underground, a radical leftist group, claims responsibility, saying the bombing was in protest of "racist policies" in Angola.

Aug. 9 -- President Richard Nixon ends the possibility of an impeachment over the Watergate affair by becoming the first U.S. President to resign from office.

Jan. 12 -- Pittsburgh’s football dynasty begins with the first of the Steelers four Super Bowl wins. Buoyed by the famed "Steel Curtain" defense, Pittsburgh defeats the Minnesota Vikings, 16-6, in Super Bowl IX.

Feb. 6 -- The NAACP, state attorney general and minority groups sue Pittsburgh for racial and sex discrimination in police hiring.

April 30 -- The U.S. struggle in Vietnam ends when helicopters evacuate the last American personnel from Saigon.

Sept. 8 -- The Pittsburgh School Board announces a $45-million school desegregation plan.

Oct. 30 -- Radio Station KDKA and the Pittsburgh Pirates fire longtime baseball announcers Bob Prince and Nellie King.

March 24 -- The Pittsburgh Civil Service Commission requests hiring of equal numbers of whites and minorities in the city fire department.

May 12 -- Demonstrators hold a sit-in at Rockwell International headquarters, protesting the company’s involvement in the making of the B-1 bomber.

July 4 -- America celebrates its Bicentennial with parades, fireworks and special events across the country.

Nov. 2 -- Peanut farmer and Georgia Gov. Jimmy Carter narrowly defeats Gerald Ford to become President of the United States, and H. John Heinz III becomes a Republican member of the U.S. Senate.

Jan. 1 -- The University of Pittsburgh, powered by running back Tony Dorsett, becomes the collegiate national champion in football after defeating Georgia in the Sugar Bowl.

Jan. 20 -- An explosion at Langley Hall on the campus of University of Pittsburgh caused by a gas leak kills three and injures 22.

Feb. 21 -- President Jimmy Carter names Pete Flaherty as deputy U.S. attorney general. Two months later, Flaherty resigns as Pittsburgh mayor and is replaced by Richard S. Caliguiri.

Aug. 1 -- A strike by 14,000 steelworkers marks the first major work stoppage in the steel industry in 18 years.

Nov. 8 -- Running as an independent, Richard Caliguiri defeats Democrat Tom Foerster in the mayoral race.

Jan. 22 -- Pete Flaherty announces he will run for governor. He is later upset in the election race by Republican Richard Thornburgh.

March 30 -- Pennsylvania authorizes using $55 million in federal funds to pay for the first phase of the East Busway.

July 25 -- Louise Brown becomes world’s first child conceived outside her mother’s womb, prompting the term "test tube baby."

Aug. 6 -- John Paul II becomes the first non-Italian Pope in 400 years.

Nov. 8 -- Richard Thornburgh upsets Pete Flaherty to become governor of Pennsylvania.

Feb. 2 -- An estimated 7,000 assemble in Market Square to celebrate the Steelers’ third Super Bowl win.

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A resident living a mile away from Three Mile Island lies flat as a machine scans his body to see if he absorbed radiation from the accident at the nuclear power plant. In the background is a computer that analyzed the results from the full body scanner.
       -- Paul Vathis/Associated Press

March 28 -- Mechanical malfunctions, design flaws and human error result in the worst nuclear accident in U.S. history at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, located in a small Pennsylvania town 10 miles outside Harrisburg. The partial meltdown’s cleanup cost is $1 billion.

May 7 -- The federal government OKs $265 million for construction of a light-rail transit system connecting the South Hills with Downtown.

July 25 -- City Council gives preliminary approval to a plan by PPG Industries to build its $100 million headquarters in Market Square.

Oct. 17 -- Led by Willie Stargell and the theme song "We Are Family," the Pirates defeat the Baltimore Orioles to win the World Series.

Nov. 27 -- U.S. Steel announces cuts in production and the elimination of 13,000 jobs, 1,800 of them in Western Pennsylvania.

Nov. 4 -- Iranian students seize the American Embassy in Tehran, Iran and take 63 hostages with the support of the religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini. The hostages are held for 444 days as the U.S. seems powerless to secure their release. A botched rescue attempt and the length of the crisis doom President Jimmy Carter’s chances for re-election. He is defeated by one-time actor and former California governor Ronald Reagan. The hostages are released in January 1981, and Reagan is the one who gets to make the announcement during his inaugural address.

Jan. 20
-- The Steelers win their fourth Super Bowl, cementing their title as the dynasty of the 70s.

April 8 -- Sen. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass., makes a presidential campaign stop at the Cyclops Steel Corp. in Bridgeville. A few days later, former first lady Roslyn Carter and Republican candidate George Bush also visit Pittsburgh.

May 18 -- A long-dormant Washington volcano, Mount St. Helens, erupts for the second time in three months, killing 34 people.

Sept. 19 -- Popular TV announcer Nick Perry and six others are charged with conspiracy after a grand jury investigation determines the drawing of the Pennsylvania Daily Number, 666, was rigged.

Dec. 8 -- Former Beatle John Lennon is shot and killed by crazed fan Mark David Chapman outside the singer’s apartment building in New York City.

Dec. 31 -- Dr. Thomas Starzl arrives in Pittsburgh, where the pioneering transplant surgeon will lead a group of doctors who will perform thousands of kidney, liver, heart and multi-organ transplants at the University of Pittsburgh’s medical complex.

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